Subject: Clovis Points
Date: Friday 23rd February 2007 21:20:42 UTC (over 10 years ago)
Clovis Points The Ojibwa & The Solutreans (Iamges: Close-up of Bosch's Wedding at Cana. Clovis points. Chief John Gall. Solutrean Art.) When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we had anticipated, the four primary lineagesA, B, C and Dbut there was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C and D. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3116_stoneage.html http://www.ojibwe.info/Ojibwe/HTML/people/p00000x2.htm I was introduced to Joy by the mother of my good friend, Mark Gall, she the manager of the retirement home where Ray Gall lives. Ray comes from a Jewish family in Austria and married a Gentile surnamed Gall. Five days ago Joy told me her great, great, great grandfather was John Grass, aka. John Gall, also Gaul. For four years now I have a reserved seat at Ray's table where on Family Night I come to dine. In our first conversations, where we wondered if we were romantically compatible, we shared our interest in our family genealogies. I told her had an interest in the Knight Templars. She told me she was descended from Robert Bruce on her mother's side who was a McLean. Joy showed me her Bruce chart that was done in 1964 by a professional genealogists. I told her her interest in Robert Bruce preceeded the current craze that culminated in Dan Brown's The Davnici Code, that tapped into the claim the Sinclairs were descended from Jesus and Mary Magdalene who fled to the South of France with Jesus' daughter, Sarah. The Sincliars have conducted extensive DNA tests to prove - God knows what! What was of real interest to me was Joy's photographs of her father's people. Joy talked about an ancient document that the Cadotte's had recieved from Catholic priests up in Canada near the Great Lakes. Joy said the Cadottes are Metis who came to live with the Hunkpapa Sioux, and she was kin to the Ojibwa. Last night, a day after I posted on Joy and the Hunkpapa Ghost Dancers, I watched Nova that did a show on the Clovis points and the DNA tests of the Ojibwa who made Clovis points. This show flashed a photo of five Indians that looked like the Hunkpapa, but failed to identify them. Nova suggested the Ojibwa had contact with the Solutreans who did magnificent renditions of red bison and horses in a cave in Gaul. The Hunkpapa and the Swan Brethren are connected with the worship our 'Our Lady' the Virgin Mary who some authors claim is the worship of Mary Magdalene in disguise. One coud say this constitutes a New Age Genesis that takes the liberty to rewrite religious history they claim was altered 2,000 years ago. My link of the Black Madonna, to the Hunkpapa and the Ojibwa, along with the woman from Rose Bud who claimed she gave birth to the Indian Messiah, pre-dates many New Age claims, and establishes this New Genesis in real history. That this Hunkpapa Madonna was named 'Scarlet Woman' is quite profound, for this name has been applied to Mary Magdalene. I suspect the Solutreans were redheads and thus it was easier to traget them. King David, Jesus, and Mary Magdalene supposedly had red hair. Red-headed white-skinned people have been seen by Native Americans in the New World. Jon Presco President: Royal Rosamond Publishing http://rougeknights.blogspot.com Copyright 2007 Media Corner We caught the last half(-ish) of a Nova program (PBS) on the peopling of the Americas (originally broadcast back in November). What we saw was pretty good, and after looking at a transcript we found our initial impressions were correct (at least as far as we're concerned). They hit all the right themes and didn't really push one idea or the other overly hard. In a sense, it wasn't about the peopling of the Americas at all, but rather about the Clovis-first hypothesis. Consequently, we didn't hear a whole lot on the various hypotheses regarding migration routes from Asia, considerations of the ice-free corridor timing, possible maritime routes, etc. The main "hook" seemed to be the possible European connection pushed by Dennis Stanford, that is, that Clovis is derived from the Solutrean. The major new evidence presented here was some mtDNA work by Douglas Wallace who apparently found a fifth source of DNA in the Ojibwa: When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we had anticipated, the four primary lineagesA, B, C and Dbut there was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C and D. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3116_stoneage.html White Crane, the noted Ojibway chief, was at that time the village chief of La Pointe and Michel Cadotte wooed and won his beautiful daughter. Equaysayway was her native name but when she married Cadotte and entered the church she was given the name of Madeline. Her name has been perpetuated in the name of the island on which she lived and died, which, up to the middle of 19th century, had been known by a variety of titles ranging from Moningwunakauning to just plain Michel's. This marriage was a singular stroke of good fortune for Michel Cadotte. The Cranes were the aristocracy of the Ojibway tribe, equivalent to the 'old 400' of New York. They claimed that their ancestors were the first to pitch their wigwams and light their fires on Chequamegon Point when the tribe migrated from the Sault three hundred years before. Although the marriage was undoubtedly a love match it did much to further the ambitions of Cadotte and put him in a strong position with the people among whom he was to spend his life. On October 28, 1756, in the Catholic Church at Michilimakinac, Jean Baptiste Corbine was married to an Ojibway woman of the great Awause clan referred to in the marriage documents as a neophyte named Marianne, the daughter of a Nipissing, and in another old French document as Athanasi, Anastasia and Catherine. This woman was of remarkable strong character and possessed an unusual energy, helping her husband in his fur trading to the extent of making canoe trips of hundreds miles with the voyageurs and coureurs de bois to far flung fur outposts. She once dramatically saved the life of Alexander Henry, who was at one time a partner of Jean Baptiste Cadotte and spent the winter of 1765/66 with him on the main land opposite Madeline Island, about where Bayfield, Wisconsin now stands. "Enter killers with a flair for art About 20,000 years ago a new group arrived, some scholars think from the east, others from North Africa. They took up residence in caves and rockshelters in France and Spain--and western Europe was never the same again. We call them the Solutreans. They were highly efficient hunters, the likes of whom probably weren't seen again until the white slaughterers of the American buffalo in the 19th century. Estimates of the number of wild horses killed in the upper Paleolithic at Solutré alone range from 30,000 to 100,000. Full bellies gave them leisure time, which they used to decorate the walls of their caves with fabulous surrealistic paintings of bison and horses and ibex that continue to awe us today. They were carvers, too, for art's sake. In Solutrean sites we find carved limestone tablets--at one site in Spain there are stacks of hundreds. Stanford describes them as "3 to 6 inches long, 3 inches wide, and half an inch thick. The design, sometimes zoomorphic, sometimes geomorphic, is engraved on one side or both." They weren't drilled and made into pendants. They don't do anything. Perhaps they have religious significance. Or perhaps they just are. What made the Solutreans deadly efficient hunters was their unprecedented skill at fashioning tools and weapons from stone. In the 4,000 years of their supremacy we can see their knapping creations evolve from unifacial points (later reappearing as the willow-leaf point, unifacial again, but of extraordinary delicacy and fineness) to bifacial laurel-leaf points and blades. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1013315/posts John Baptiste CADOTTE Father: John Baptiste CADOTTE Mother: (Cadotte) Partnership with: "Ojibway_woman" Notes for John Baptiste CADOTTE Ancestors of John Baptiste CADOTTE /- CADEAU /-John Baptiste CADOTTEJohn Baptiste CADOTTE \- (Cadotte) Descendants of John Baptiste CADOTTE1 John Baptiste CADOTTE ="Ojibway_woman" http://www3.telus.net/public/dgarneau/indian3.htm http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/indian1.htm THE FAMILY CONNECTION TO THE OJIBWA NATION During the eighteen century a Garneau married an Ojibwa girl. Family tradition suggests he married a Dakota Sioux who was a captive of the Ojibwa. His son however did marry an Ojibwa girl. Cadotte, a Wendat (Huron) Metis, also married a Garneau in the nineteenth century. The Thomas clan who married a Garneau has a Swampy Cree heritage. The Cree believed they originated from their cousins the Ojibwa. The Ojibwa believes the Odahwaug (Ottawa or trading people) is their cousins and that they both originated near the Eastern Salt Sea. Some contend the Aboriginal Culture had little impact on modern Canada. Where then did we get the unique Canadian patience, our desire to compromise, our deep concern for equality and peace, and our tenacity? This type of thinking led them to a different set of beliefs and values than their European brothers. It is noteworthy that many Aboriginal beliefs and values have become the basis for the United Nations! Free trade is also an aboriginal principle. About the middle of the eighteenth century there became prominent among the many French and English fur traders operating throughout the Northwest one Jean Baptiste Cadotte, a son of the above-mentioned Cadeau and father of Michel Cadotte. As a young man he penetrated the most remove villages of the Ojibway in the territory around Lake Superior and became very popular with all the Indians with whom he came in contact while acting in his capacity of fur trader. His influence among the Indians was great and served him in good stead in many crises. It is said that when French dominion ceased throughout the Northwest Jean Baptiste Cadotte tried to leave the region but the love of the Indians for him and his children was so great that they threatened to force to make him stay. There is a fairly well substantiated tradition that the chiefs of the Ojibway tribe granted the site of the present day Sault Ste. Marie to J. B. Cadotte and his descendants as a mark of their gratitude for his labors in their behalf. Alexander Henry is said to have had the grand of land after his death it was brought into the Lake Superior region by an unknown person who made a number of inquires concerning the Cadotte family, and then returned to Montreal. Since that time it has not been heard of. Jean Baptiste Cadotte and is referred to by Alexander Henry, the noted English trader, as the last governor of the French Fort at Sault Ste. Marie. Anastasia Cadotte bore two sons, Jean Baptiste, Jr. and Michel, the last named of whom inherited to the greatest extent the admirable qualities of both mother and father. Michel Cadotte was born July 22, 1764, at Sault Ste. Marie. The early days of his childhood were spent in and around the little trading post where he learned his lessons, which would serve him so well in the eventful years, which followed. As a youth he was sent to Montreal, where he received a liberal education, and on his return, he entered the fur trade as an assistant to his father. Far horizons held an untold lure for young Michel Cadotte and as early as 17984, when he was but 20 years old, he was wintering among his Indian half brothers at the head of the Chippewa River. At that early date he had already established a trading post on the Namakagon River, a tributary of the St. Croix, and was doing extensive trading with the tribes along the upper Mississippi. The date of his location on Madeline Island is uncertain, some saying 1792, others 1800, but it may be stated with a fair degree of certainty that he settle permanently on that picturesque and historic piece of terra firma during the last decade of the 18th century. http://www.ojibwe.info/Ojibwe/HTML/people/p00001tt.htm#I33371 Michel Cadotte 1764-1837 (also spelled Michael, Cadott, Cadeau, and other variations) or (Ojibwe: Kechemeshane (or Gichi-miishen in the contemporary spelling) "Great Michel") was a Métis fur trader whose post at La Pointe on Madeline Island was a critical center for trade between the Lake Superior Ojibwe and British and American trading companies. The Honourable Associate Chief Judge Murray Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe) was appointed Associate Chief Judge of the Provincial Court of Manitoba. He was Manitoba's first Aboriginal Judge, and at that time, Canada's second The Government of Manitoba established the Manitoba Aboriginal Justice Inquiry Commission to inquire into Aboriginal justice issues in Manitoba which was co-chaired by Judge Murray Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe) Jim Sinclair (Cree/Metis) provincial and national leader of Metis and non-status Indians, most noted for his work on constitutional recognition. Genealogy by Christine Swanberg Suppose just one root of the family treeWent west instead of east. Or that just one renegade seed sprouted From the canon of ancestorsAnd remained unnamed. Then Great-Grandfather Sinclair might have been Ojibwa. Just one root might trace primordiallyTo a medicine man named Sees with Three Eyes.His wife, whose blood tom-tomsThrough your veins, might have woven baskets In a Moon Lodge with many of your cousins,Whose names might be Eagle Talon Or Two Antelopes Leaping. GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2005-05 > 1117027559 From: Bev Anderson < DisplayMail('yahoo.com','bevgand'); [email protected]> Subject: Re: [DNA] N. America's 1st Migrants Were Few, Study Says Date: Wed, 25 May 2005 06:25:59 -0700 (PDT) In-Reply- To: 6667 I just saw the PBS Nova show about Stone Age Americans within the last couple of weeks. IF there is any credence to what was presented (interwoven with data about spear points, travel during the Ice Age), there are four main DNA strains for Native Americans that came from Asia and Siberia... and an X strain of DNA found in modern Ojibwe (aka Chippewa) people that matches an extinct group of people called Solutrians in Europe. I seem to remember that I was once told the Ojibwe were from the east coast until white settlers encroaching on their territory made them move inland; I know they are currently in MN and WI, but I don't know where else they may have settled. The Ojibwe peoples have beautiful music, dance, and art.I leave it to the experts to sort out the Native American DNA lines of A, B, C, D, and X spoken about in the PBS Nova show. If true, the show was fascinating because it wove archaeological, anthropological, and DNA information all together....Bev Anderson http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stoneage/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3116_stoneage.html Partial transcript copied and pasted below from the Nova show. Click on link for full transcript.NARRATOR: Clovis and Solutrean spear points not only look alike, they are made the same unusual way. To Stanford and Bradley, this was a powerful clue that prehistoric explorers had come from Europe and brought with them the technology that transformed Stone Age America: the Clovis Spear Point.It was an outrageous idea with a few big problems. The Solutrean's culture ended in Europe around 18,000 years ago, and the Clovis point would not arrive in America for another 5,000 years. If the Solutreans brought the Clovis point to America, where had they been?Stanford and Bradley needed to find some artifact in the Americas to bridge the time gap. They scoured Clovis sites across the continent, places where other archaeologists had been digging for years. Then, from a site called Cactus Hill, in Virginia, a possibility, a point that resembled the Solutrean style, and it dated far earlier than the Clovis. DENNIS STANFORD: Here we have a projectile point from a feature that dates right at 15,900 years or 16,000 years ago, which is clearly right in the middle between Clovis and Solutrean. And what's really exciting about it is that the technology here is very similar to Solutrean. In fact it's closer to Solutrean than Clovis where you can see that it's in a progression between Solutrean and Clovis, so you have Solutrean, Cactus Hill and Clovis.NARRATOR: For Stanford and Bradley, the Cactus Hill point bridged the 5,000-year gap, connecting Solutreans in France and Clovis in America. But their fledgling theory now confronted another massive problem almost 3,000 miles wide: the Atlantic Ocean.At the time of the Solutreans, ice sheets stretched down as far as southern France, where winter temperatures were 50 degrees colder than today. Unlike the more temperate Pacific coast, the Atlantic would, at times, have been thick with icebergs and blizzards.LAWRENCE GUY STRAUS (University of New Mexico): There are 5,000 kilometers of open North Atlantic Ice Age conditions to be crossed. There are icebergs floating around in the Bay of Biscay, and it's a polar desert.NARRATOR: Could the Solutreans, a Stone Age people, have made such a voyage?Stanford flew to a place where he thought he might find the answer: Barrow, Alaska, on the edge of the continent at the northern most tip of the United States. Here he hopes the native people of Alaska, the Inupiat, might reveal how, thousands of years ago, the Solutreans could have made an epic transatlantic journey.Today the Inupiat survive temperatures of minus 35 degrees. For warm waterproof clothing, traditionalists prefer caribou skin and sinew, the same materials available to their Stone Age ancestors. And for food on their seasonal hunting trips, the Inupiat turn to an age old resource, the sea.RONALD BROWER (Inupiat Heritage Center): The sea has been our garden. We don't have any growth...growing things. There's nothing growing, up here, so we depend on the sea for our livelihood, and most of our hunting is based on sea mammal hunting. We have the great whales, polar bears, walrus, seals and fish. NARRATOR: Even with warm clothing and food, could the Solutreans have made boats capable of crossing thousands of miles of treacherous, icy water? Today, traditional Inupiat build umiaks, whaling boats, using sealskin and caribou sinew stretched on wood frames and waterproofed with oil applied directly from seal blubber. These same techniques and materials would have been available to prehistoric people. DENNIS STANFORD: Boats like these can...could have made the journey that we're hypothesizing for Solutrean people quite well. In fact, I was noticing on the distance signs here in the middle of town, they say it's about 1,500 miles to Greenland. And we know that, prehistorically, Eskimo peoples moved that distance from here to there several times.NARRATOR: In Arctic seas filled with pack ice conditions similar to the Ice Age Atlantic, the boats pass the test as the Inupiat paddle from ice floe to ice floe.DENNIS STANFORD: Well, it certainly is exactly the way I think the Solutrean guys were dealing with the ice edge, because you can get in and off of the ice real rapidly and, and if the weather gets a little, little nasty then you just pull up off...out of the water and onto the ice.NARRATOR: For Stanford and Bradley, this ability to travel great distances in Arctic conditions suggested how the Solutreans could have made their epic journey during the Ice Age. They had now gathered a broad range of evidence: physical similarities between the Solutrean and Clovis spear points, a similar technique used to make them, and the Cactus Hill point connecting Solutrean and Clovis in time. All added up to a radical and provocative theory, that the Solutreans invented the Clovis point technology, and Ice Age Europeans were amongst America's earliest explorers.Immediately, the theory was attacked. The close resemblance of the spear points was not enough.DAVID MELTZER: You can always find...if you're careful in your selection, you can always find one or two things that look alike. I'm not looking for one or two things. I'm looking for lots of things: the artwork, the antler spear throwers, where are they? Did they get left behind? There's no reason why they shouldn't be there, but we don't see it.NARRATOR: Can one spear point bridge a 5,000 year gap?KENNETH TANKERSLEY: Although Cactus Hill, its radiocarbon date and artifact have been used to bridge the gap between the Solutrean and Clovis, in reality, it will take a lot of sites, a lot of radiocarbon dates and a large assemblage of artifacts to make that connection.NARRATOR: And although the Solutreans may have been capable of making a cross- Atlantic journey, there's little archeological evidence that they did.LAWRENCE GUY STRAUS: There is absolutely no evidence of deep sea fishing. There's absolutely no evidence, for that matter, of boats. NARRATOR: But Stanford argues that crucial evidence is missing, submerged under 300 feet of water as rising sea levels inundated the Solutrean coastline at the end of the Ice Age.The debate raged on, with arguments for and against the Solutrean theory. Then came evidence that, again, seemed like it might end the battle: DNA.It was the latest report from colleagues of Doug Wallace who were investigating early human migrations. They were puzzling over mitochondrial DNA samples from a Native American tribe called the Ojibwa.DOUGLAS WALLACE: When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we had anticipated, the four primary lineagesA, B, C and Dbut there was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C and D.NARRATOR: There was a fifth source of DNA of mysterious origin. They called it X, and unlike A, B, C and D, they couldn't find it anywhere in Siberia or eastern Asia. But it was similar to an uncommon lineage in European populations today. At first, they thought it must be the result of interracial breeding within the last 500 years, sometime after Columbus.DOUGLAS WALLACE: We naturally assumed that perhaps there had been European recent mixture with the Ojibwa tribe and that some European women had married into the Ojibwa tribe and contributed their mitochondrial DNAs.NARRATOR: But that assumption proved wrong. When they looked at the amount of variation in the X lineage, it pointed to an origin long before Columbus, in fact, to at least 15,000 years ago. It appeared to be evidence of Ice Age Europeans in America.DOUGLAS WALLACE: Well, what it says is that a mitochondrial lineage that is predominantly found in Europe somehow got to the Great Lakes region of the Americas 14,000 to 15,000 years ago.NARRATOR: Could X be genetic evidence of the Solutreans in America? Further investigation raised another possibility. The ancient X lineage may have existed in Siberia, but died out, though not before coming over to America with Ancient migrations. DOUGLAS WALLACE: And so the DNA data itself cannot distinguish between those two alternatives. It could be either from Europe or from Siberia, of a population that is now lost.NARRATOR: So X could have reached the Americas through Asia, or across the Atlantic directly from Europe. The DNA could not provide a storybook ending. http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/cadot1.htm METIS AND OJIBWA ON THE SHORES OF KITCHI - GAMI The creation of the Metis Nation is built on the foundation of the Ojibwa Culture. This mix of people quietly and without fanfare explored and mapped the interior of a continent. Louis Garneau (1790- 1863) homesteaded the Saint Mary's Falls Region of Michigan and was an early homesteader in La Pointe, Wisconsin http://www.telusplanet.net/public/hexaquad/photo-c.htm http://www3.sympatico.ca/sneakers/FranXCadotte.htm http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/metis34.htm http://www.rootsweb.com/~wibayfie/michelcadotte.html Michel Cadotte 1764-1837 (also spelled Michael, Cadott, Cadeau, and other variations) or (Ojibwe: Kechemeshane (or Gichi-miishen in the contemporary spelling) "Great Michel") was a Métis fur trader whose post at La Pointe on Madeline Island was a critical center for trade between the Lake Superior Ojibwe and British and American trading companies Media Corner We caught the last half(-ish) of a Nova program (PBS) on the peopling of the Americas (originally broadcast back in November). What we saw was pretty good, and after looking at a transcript we found our initial impressions were correct (at least as far as we're concerned). They hit all the right themes and didn't really push one idea or the other overly hard. In a sense, it wasn't about the peopling of the Americas at all, but rather about the Clovis-first hypothesis. Consequently, we didn't hear a whole lot on the various hypotheses regarding migration routes from Asia, considerations of the ice-free corridor timing, possible maritime routes, etc. The main "hook" seemed to be the possible European connection pushed by Dennis Stanford, that is, that Clovis is derived from the Solutrean. The major new evidence presented here was some mtDNA work by Douglas Wallace who apparently found a fifth source of DNA in the Ojibwa: When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we had anticipated, the four primary lineagesA, B, C and Dbut there was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C and D. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3116_stoneage.html One team even proposes that the first Americans came from Europe, not Asia, based on the similarity of Clovis points to the weapons of the Solutreans, who lived about 17,000 years ago in what is now southern France and northern Spain. If the Solutreans ever crossed the Atlantic, they may have traveled like today's Eskimos, who make long journeys skirting ice floes in watertight skin boats, hunting arctic game as they go. Settlers May Have Crossed Atlantic By JOSEPH B. VERRENGIAAP Science Writer = SANTA FE, N.M. (AP) _ In a radical new view of pre-history, two prominent archeologists say North America's first inhabitants may have crossed the icy Atlantic Ocean some 18,000 years ago from Europe's Iberian Peninsula. The theory, presented at a weekend conference, is at odds with the long-held notion that the continent's first settlers came across a land bridge from Asia. The conventional view is the stuff of college entrance exams and Far Side cartoons _ wandering cavemen wrapped in animal hides and lugging enormous spears, crossing the land bridge from Asia to hunt woolly mammoths. Archeologists say some nomads almost certainly made their way into Alaska and found an ice-free highway down into the continent some 13,500 years ago. Their culture has been named Clovis for their distinctive weapons that have been found in digs nationwide. But according to the new theory, the continent's first inhabitants may have crossed the Atlantic more than 18,000 years ago from Europe's Iberian Peninsula _ the area that is now Spain, Portugal and southwestern France. Belonging to a group known as the Solutreans, these pre-modern explorers are believed to have originally settled the Eastern Seaboard, according to the researchers. Over the next six millennia, their hunting and gathering culture may have spread as far as the American deserts and Canadian tundra, and perhaps into South America. The researchers, Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, concede the Solutreans may not have been the only paleo-explorers to reach the Western Hemisphere. But judging by their distinctive style of projectile points and other clues in the archeological record, they may have been the first settlers who brought to North America what, until now, has been considered the Clovis culture. ``There is very little in Clovis - in fact, nothing - that is not found in Solutrea,'' said Stanford, who is anthropology curator at the Smithsonian Institution. ``Their blades are virtually indistinguishable.'' Stanford and Bradley, an independent researcher from Cortez, Colo., offered their stunning reinterpretation of the standard settlement theory at an archeology conference in Santa Fe. The meeting was devoted to re-examining Clovis research seven decades after it was accepted as historical bedrock. Other scientists say the Solutrean alternative is such a radical departure that it might take years to adequately evaluate. Stanford and Bradley's new explanation, they noted, is based primarily on comparisons of projectile points and other artifacts already discovered on both sides of the Atlantic. No unequivocal Solutrean settlement remains have been found in North America, they said. Researchers who believe Clovis and the Bering Sea land-bridge theory is outdated point to sites at Monte Verde, Chile as well as Pennsylvania, Virginia and South Carolina as being settled in 12,500 B.C. to 16,000 B.C. But Clovis defenders say many artifacts from those digs are so crude that they may be rocks that have broken naturally rather than actual stone tools fashioned by prehistoric hands. Still, observers said, the older Solutrean projectile points from Europe and the more recent Clovis points from the Americas closely resemble each other. That's what makes the new ``Out of Iberia'' theory so tantalizing. ``There is no question about it,'' Kent State University archeologist Kenneth Tankersley said. ``There are only two places in the world and two times that this technology appears - Solutrean and Clovis.'' How seafaring Solutreans could have arrived in North America is unknown. Based on his knowledge of modern native cultures above the Arctic Circle, Stanford said it is not farfetched to imagine Solutreans sailing to the New World in skin boats. With a strong current and favorable weather, the trip might have taken as little as three weeks, he calculated. By this time in pre-history, he said, South Pacific islanders had been sailing open waters for at least 20,000 years. "To Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. is given the credit for completely opening to the fur traders the region about the upper Mississippi. " Jean Baptiste had followed in the footsteps of his father, the fur trader and partner of Alexander Henry WHO IS HE? Jean Baptiste Cadotte, Jr. spent the winter of 1797-98 at the strategic forks of the Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, or at the present site of the town of Red Lake Falls. "Mr. Cadotte in the employ of the Northwest Company, probably spent the winter of 1794-95 at Red Lake and the next year at Cedar or Cass Lake, while the season following, 1796-97, was passed at Red Lake once more. He was in charge the next winter of the trading house of the Northwest Company on the present site of the town of Red Lake Falls." On March 25, 1798 the geographer and surveyor David Thompson, who like Cadotte was in the employ of the Northwest Company, visited Cadotte's house at the fork of the Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers. About his visit Thompson wrote: "Mr. Baptiste Cadotte was about thirty-five years of age. He was the son of a French gentleman by a native woman, and married to a very handsome native woman, also the daughter of a Frenchman: He had been well educated in Lower Canada, and spoke fluently his native Language, with Latin, French and English. I had long wished to meet a well educated native, from whom I could derive sound information for I was well aware that neither myself, nor any other Person I had met with, who was not a Native, were sufficiently masters of the Indian Languages. As the season was advancing to break up the Rivers, and thaw the snow from off the ground, I inquired if he would advise me to proceed any farther with Dogs and Sleds: he said the season was too far advanced, and my further advance must be in Canoes. Because of the severity of the spring thaw and rain which accompanied it, Thompson returned to Cadotte's house March 31 at which time he spoke with the Chippewa chief of the Red Lake Indians and observed some Indian dances. "The course of this River is from south westward until it is lost in the Plains, the groves are at a considerable distance from each other, by no means sufficient for the regular Farmer, but may become a fine pastoral country , but without a market, other than the inhabitants of the Red River." Thompson left Cadotte's house on April 9 with his crew of three French Canadians and the wife of one of them, a native woman. They took the Clearwater River since they were traveling in a birch canoe and the Red Lake River still had ice on it from the Lake. http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/cadot3.htm Cadotte was born July 22, 1764 to a French father and an Anishinaabe mother in Sault Ste. Marie. His paternal grandfather, a man named Cadeau, had come to Lake Superior on a French exploratory mission in the late 17th century. His father, Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr., became an active fur trader for French and later British interests in and around the eastern end of Lake Superior. His mother, a Roman Catholic convert whose French name was likely Marianne or Anastasia, was a member of the powerful Owaazsii (Bullhead) clan of the Anishinaabeg. She is frequently known in the records as having high status in the region and as being an exceptionally kind person. Michel Cadotte received a liberal French Catholic education in Montreal. Though partially French by heritage, Cadotte was born just after the collapse of New France. His career, which came toward the end of the great fur trade, was during a period were traders of Métis heritage were handling the bulk of the trade on behalf of British and American companies. As his father's career progressed, he pressed westward along the south shore of Lake Superior and set up a trading post on Mooningwanekaaning, an island in Chequamegon Bay in modern day Wisconsin. The island, the traditional center of the Lake Superior Ojibwe had been home to a previous French post. As Michel reached adulthood, he came west with his father and older brother Jean Baptiste Jr. (more often called John Baptiste Cadotte).