Jon Presco | 23 Feb 22:20 2007

Clovis Points

Clovis Points
The Ojibwa &
The Solutreans

(Iamges: Close-up of Bosch's Wedding at Cana. Clovis points. Chief
John Gall. Solutrean Art.)

When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we
had anticipated, the four primary lineages—A, B, C and D—but there
was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C
and D.

I was introduced to Joy by the mother of my good friend, Mark Gall,
she the manager of the retirement home where Ray Gall lives. Ray
comes from a Jewish family in Austria and married a Gentile surnamed
Gall. Five days ago Joy told me her great, great, great grandfather
was John Grass, aka. John Gall, also Gaul. For four years now I have
a reserved seat at Ray's table where on Family Night I come to dine.

In our first conversations, where we wondered if we were romantically
compatible, we shared our interest in our family genealogies. I told
her had an interest in the Knight Templars. She told me she was
descended from Robert Bruce on her mother's side who was a McLean.
Joy showed me her Bruce chart that was done in 1964 by a professional
genealogists. I told her her interest in Robert Bruce preceeded the
current craze that culminated in Dan Brown's The Davnici Code, that
tapped into the claim the Sinclairs were descended from Jesus and
Mary Magdalene who fled to the South of France with Jesus' daughter,
Sarah. The Sincliars have conducted extensive DNA tests to prove -
God knows what!

What was of real interest to me was Joy's photographs of her father's
people. Joy talked about an ancient document that the Cadotte's had
recieved from Catholic priests up in Canada near the Great Lakes. Joy
said the Cadottes are Metis who came to live with the Hunkpapa Sioux,
and she was kin to the Ojibwa.

Last night, a day after I posted on Joy and the Hunkpapa Ghost
Dancers, I watched Nova that did a show on the Clovis points and the
DNA tests of the Ojibwa who made Clovis points. This show flashed a
photo of five Indians that looked like the Hunkpapa, but failed to
identify them.
Nova suggested the Ojibwa had contact with the Solutreans who did
magnificent renditions of red bison and horses in a cave in Gaul.

The Hunkpapa and the Swan Brethren are connected with the worship
our 'Our Lady' the Virgin Mary who some authors claim is the worship
of Mary Magdalene in disguise. One coud say this constitutes a New
Age Genesis that takes the liberty to rewrite religious history they
claim was altered 2,000 years ago. My link of the Black Madonna, to
the Hunkpapa and the Ojibwa, along with the woman from Rose Bud who
claimed she gave birth to the Indian Messiah, pre-dates many New Age
claims, and establishes this New Genesis in real history. That this
Hunkpapa Madonna was named 'Scarlet Woman' is quite profound, for
this name has been applied to Mary Magdalene.

I suspect the Solutreans were redheads and thus it was easier to
traget them. King David, Jesus, and Mary Magdalene supposedly had red
hair. Red-headed white-skinned people have been seen by Native
Americans in the New World.

Jon Presco

President: Royal Rosamond Publishing

Copyright 2007

Media Corner We caught the last half(-ish) of a Nova program (PBS) on
the peopling of the Americas (originally broadcast back in November).
What we saw was pretty good, and after looking at a transcript we
found our initial impressions were correct (at least as far as we're
concerned). They hit all the right themes and didn't really push one
idea or the other overly hard. In a sense, it wasn't about the
peopling of the Americas at all, but rather about the Clovis-first
hypothesis. Consequently, we didn't hear a whole lot on the various
hypotheses regarding migration routes from Asia, considerations of
the ice-free corridor timing, possible maritime routes, etc. The
main "hook" seemed to be the possible European connection pushed by
Dennis Stanford, that is, that Clovis is derived from the Solutrean.
The major new evidence presented here was some mtDNA work by Douglas
Wallace who apparently found a fifth source of DNA in the Ojibwa:

When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we
had anticipated, the four primary lineages—A, B, C and D—but there
was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C
and D.

White Crane, the noted Ojibway chief, was at that time the village
chief of La Pointe and Michel Cadotte wooed and won his beautiful
daughter. Equaysayway was her native name but when she married
Cadotte and entered the church she was given the name of Madeline.
Her name has been perpetuated in the name of the island on which she
lived and died, which, up to the middle of 19th century, had been
known by a variety of titles ranging from Moningwunakauning to just
plain Michel's. This marriage was a singular stroke of good fortune
for Michel Cadotte.

The Cranes were the aristocracy of the Ojibway tribe, equivalent to
the 'old 400' of New York. They claimed that their ancestors were the
first to pitch their wigwams and light their fires on Chequamegon
Point when the tribe migrated from the Sault three hundred years
before. Although the marriage was undoubtedly a love match it did
much to further the ambitions of Cadotte and put him in a strong
position with the people among whom he was to spend his life.

On October 28, 1756, in the Catholic Church at Michilimakinac, Jean
Baptiste Corbine was married to an Ojibway woman of the great Awause
clan referred to in the marriage documents as a neophyte named
Marianne, the daughter of a Nipissing, and in another old French
document as Athanasi, Anastasia and Catherine. This woman was of
remarkable strong character and possessed an unusual energy, helping
her husband in his fur trading to the extent of making canoe trips of
hundreds miles with the voyageurs and coureurs de bois to far flung
fur outposts. She once dramatically saved the life of Alexander
Henry, who was at one time a partner of Jean Baptiste Cadotte and
spent the winter of 1765/66 with him on the main land opposite
Madeline Island, about where Bayfield, Wisconsin now stands.

"Enter killers with a flair for art

About 20,000 years ago a new group arrived, some scholars think from
the east, others from North Africa. They took up residence in caves
and rockshelters in France and Spain--and western Europe was never
the same again. We call them the Solutreans. They were highly
efficient hunters, the likes of whom probably weren't seen again
until the white slaughterers of the American buffalo in the 19th
century. Estimates of the number of wild horses killed in the upper
Paleolithic at Solutré alone range from 30,000 to 100,000. Full
bellies gave them leisure time, which they used to decorate the walls
of their caves with fabulous surrealistic paintings of bison and
horses and ibex that continue to awe us today. They were carvers,
too, for art's sake. In Solutrean sites we find carved limestone
tablets--at one site in Spain there are stacks of hundreds. Stanford
describes them as "3 to 6 inches long, 3 inches wide, and half an
inch thick. The design, sometimes zoomorphic, sometimes geomorphic,
is engraved on one side or both." They weren't drilled and made into
pendants. They don't do anything. Perhaps they have religious
significance. Or perhaps they just are.

What made the Solutreans deadly efficient hunters was their
unprecedented skill at fashioning tools and weapons from stone. In
the 4,000 years of their supremacy we can see their knapping
creations evolve from unifacial points (later reappearing as the
willow-leaf point, unifacial again, but of extraordinary delicacy and
fineness) to bifacial laurel-leaf points and blades.

John Baptiste CADOTTE

Father: John Baptiste CADOTTE
Mother: (Cadotte)

Partnership with: "Ojibway_woman"

Notes for John Baptiste CADOTTE
Ancestors of John Baptiste CADOTTE /-
CADEAU /-John Baptiste CADOTTEJohn Baptiste CADOTTE \-

Descendants of John Baptiste CADOTTE1 John Baptiste CADOTTE


During the eighteen century a Garneau married an Ojibwa girl. Family
tradition suggests he married a Dakota Sioux who was a captive of the
Ojibwa. His son however did marry an Ojibwa girl. Cadotte, a Wendat
(Huron) Metis, also married a Garneau in the nineteenth century. The
Thomas clan who married a Garneau has a Swampy Cree heritage. The
Cree believed they originated from their cousins the Ojibwa. The
Ojibwa believes the Odahwaug (Ottawa or trading people) is their
cousins and that they both originated near the Eastern Salt Sea.

Some contend the Aboriginal Culture had little impact on modern
Canada. Where then did we get the unique Canadian patience, our
desire to compromise, our deep concern for equality and peace, and
our tenacity? This type of thinking led them to a different set of
beliefs and values than their European brothers. It is noteworthy
that many Aboriginal beliefs and values have become the basis for the
United Nations! Free trade is also an aboriginal principle.

About the middle of the eighteenth century there became prominent
among the many French and English fur traders operating throughout
the Northwest one Jean Baptiste Cadotte, a son of the above-mentioned
Cadeau and father of Michel Cadotte. As a young man he penetrated the
most remove villages of the Ojibway in the territory around Lake
Superior and became very popular with all the Indians with whom he
came in contact while acting in his capacity of fur trader. His
influence among the Indians was great and served him in good stead in
many crises. It is said that when French dominion ceased throughout
the Northwest Jean Baptiste Cadotte tried to leave the region but the
love of the Indians for him and his children was so great that they
threatened to force to make him stay.

There is a fairly well substantiated tradition that the chiefs of the
Ojibway tribe granted the site of the present day Sault Ste. Marie to
J. B. Cadotte and his descendants as a mark of their gratitude for
his labors in their behalf. Alexander Henry is said to have had the
grand of land after his death it was brought into the Lake Superior
region by an unknown person who made a number of inquires concerning
the Cadotte family, and then returned to Montreal. Since that time it
has not been heard of. Jean Baptiste Cadotte and is referred to by
Alexander Henry, the noted English trader, as the last governor of
the French Fort at Sault Ste. Marie.

Anastasia Cadotte bore two sons, Jean Baptiste, Jr. and Michel, the
last named of whom inherited to the greatest extent the admirable
qualities of both mother and father. Michel Cadotte was born July 22,
1764, at Sault Ste. Marie. The early days of his childhood were spent
in and around the little trading post where he learned his lessons,
which would serve him so well in the eventful years, which followed.
As a youth he was sent to Montreal, where he received a liberal
education, and on his return, he entered the fur trade as an
assistant to his father.

Far horizons held an untold lure for young Michel Cadotte and as
early as 17984, when he was but 20 years old, he was wintering among
his Indian half brothers at the head of the Chippewa River. At that
early date he had already established a trading post on the Namakagon
River, a tributary of the St. Croix, and was doing extensive trading
with the tribes along the upper Mississippi. The date of his location
on Madeline Island is uncertain, some saying 1792, others 1800, but
it may be stated with a fair degree of certainty that he settle
permanently on that picturesque and historic piece of terra firma
during the last decade of the 18th century.

Michel Cadotte 1764-1837 (also spelled Michael, Cadott, Cadeau, and
other variations) or (Ojibwe: Kechemeshane (or Gichi-miishen in the
contemporary spelling) "Great Michel") was a Métis fur trader whose
post at La Pointe on Madeline Island was a critical center for trade
between the Lake Superior Ojibwe and British and American trading

The Honourable Associate Chief Judge Murray Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe)
was appointed Associate Chief Judge of the Provincial Court of
Manitoba. He was Manitoba's first Aboriginal Judge, and at that time,
Canada's second The Government of Manitoba established the Manitoba
Aboriginal Justice Inquiry Commission to inquire into Aboriginal
justice issues in Manitoba which was co-chaired by Judge Murray
Sinclair (Peguis Ojibwe)

Jim Sinclair (Cree/Metis) provincial and national leader of Metis and
non-status Indians, most noted for his work on constitutional


by Christine Swanberg

Suppose just one root of the family treeWent west instead of east. Or
that just one renegade seed sprouted From the canon of ancestorsAnd
remained unnamed. Then Great-Grandfather Sinclair might have been
Ojibwa. Just one root might trace primordiallyTo a medicine man named
Sees with Three Eyes.His wife, whose blood tom-tomsThrough your
veins, might have woven baskets In a Moon Lodge with many of your
cousins,Whose names might be Eagle Talon Or Two Antelopes Leaping.


Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2005-05 > 1117027559
From: Bev Anderson <
bevgand <at>> Subject: Re: [DNA] N. America's 1st Migrants Were
Few, Study Says Date: Wed, 25 May 2005 06:25:59 -0700 (PDT) In-Reply-
To: 6667

I just saw the PBS Nova show about Stone Age Americans within the
last couple of weeks. IF there is any credence to what was presented
(interwoven with data about spear points, travel during the Ice Age),
there are four main DNA strains for Native Americans that came from
Asia and Siberia... and an X strain of DNA found in modern Ojibwe
(aka Chippewa) people that matches an extinct group of people called
Solutrians in Europe. I seem to remember that I was once told the
Ojibwe were from the east coast until white settlers encroaching on
their territory made them move inland; I know they are currently in
MN and WI, but I don't know where else they may have settled. The
Ojibwe peoples have beautiful music, dance, and art.I leave it to the
experts to sort out the Native American DNA lines of A, B, C, D, and
X spoken about in the PBS Nova show. If true, the show was
fascinating because it wove archaeological, anthropological, and DNA
information all together....Bev Anderson

Partial transcript copied and pasted below from the Nova show. Click
on link for full transcript.NARRATOR:

Clovis and Solutrean spear points not only look alike, they are made
the same unusual way. To Stanford and Bradley, this was a powerful
clue that prehistoric explorers had come from Europe and brought with
them the technology that transformed Stone Age America: the Clovis
Spear Point.It was an outrageous idea with a few big problems. The
Solutrean's culture ended in Europe around 18,000 years ago, and the
Clovis point would not arrive in America for another 5,000 years. If
the Solutreans brought the Clovis point to America, where had they
been?Stanford and Bradley needed to find some artifact in the
Americas to bridge the time gap. They scoured Clovis sites across the
continent, places where other archaeologists had been digging for
years. Then, from a site called Cactus Hill, in Virginia, a
possibility, a point that resembled the Solutrean style, and it dated
far earlier than the Clovis.

DENNIS STANFORD: Here we have a projectile point from a feature that
dates right at 15,900 years or 16,000 years ago, which is clearly
right in the middle between Clovis and Solutrean. And what's really
exciting about it is that the technology here is very similar to
Solutrean. In fact it's closer to Solutrean than Clovis where you can
see that it's in a progression between Solutrean and Clovis, so you
have Solutrean, Cactus Hill and Clovis.NARRATOR: For Stanford and
Bradley, the Cactus Hill point bridged the 5,000-year gap, connecting
Solutreans in France and Clovis in America. But their fledgling
theory now confronted another massive problem almost 3,000 miles
wide: the Atlantic Ocean.At the time of the Solutreans, ice sheets
stretched down as far as southern France, where winter temperatures
were 50 degrees colder than today. Unlike the more temperate Pacific
coast, the Atlantic would, at times, have been thick with icebergs
and blizzards.LAWRENCE GUY STRAUS (University of New Mexico): There
are 5,000 kilometers of open North Atlantic Ice Age conditions to be
crossed. There are icebergs floating around in the Bay of Biscay, and
it's a polar desert.NARRATOR: Could the Solutreans, a Stone Age
people, have made such a voyage?Stanford flew to a place where he
thought he might find the answer: Barrow, Alaska, on the edge of the
continent at the northern most tip of the United States. Here he
hopes the native people of Alaska, the Inupiat, might reveal how,
thousands of years ago, the Solutreans could have made an epic
transatlantic journey.Today the Inupiat survive temperatures of minus
35 degrees. For warm waterproof clothing, traditionalists prefer
caribou skin and sinew, the same materials available to their Stone
Age ancestors. And for food on their seasonal hunting trips, the
Inupiat turn to an age old resource, the sea.RONALD BROWER (Inupiat
Heritage Center): The sea has been our garden. We don't have any
growth...growing things. There's nothing growing, up here, so we
depend on the sea for our livelihood, and most of our hunting is
based on sea mammal hunting. We have the great whales, polar bears,
walrus, seals and fish. NARRATOR: Even with warm clothing and food,
could the Solutreans have made boats capable of crossing thousands of
miles of treacherous, icy water? Today, traditional Inupiat build
umiaks, whaling boats, using sealskin and caribou sinew stretched on
wood frames and waterproofed with oil applied directly from seal
blubber. These same techniques and materials would have been
available to prehistoric people. DENNIS STANFORD: Boats like these
can...could have made the journey that we're hypothesizing for
Solutrean people quite well. In fact, I was noticing on the distance
signs here in the middle of town, they say it's about 1,500 miles to
Greenland. And we know that, prehistorically, Eskimo peoples moved
that distance from here to there several times.NARRATOR: In Arctic
seas filled with pack ice conditions similar to the Ice Age Atlantic,
the boats pass the test as the Inupiat paddle from ice floe to ice
floe.DENNIS STANFORD: Well, it certainly is exactly the way I think
the Solutrean guys were dealing with the ice edge, because you can
get in and off of the ice real rapidly and, and if the weather gets a
little, little nasty then you just pull up off...out of the water and
onto the ice.NARRATOR: For Stanford and Bradley, this ability to
travel great distances in Arctic conditions suggested how the
Solutreans could have made their epic journey during the Ice Age.
They had now gathered a broad range of evidence: physical
similarities between the Solutrean and Clovis spear points, a similar
technique used to make them, and the Cactus Hill point connecting
Solutrean and Clovis in time. All added up to a radical and
provocative theory, that the Solutreans invented the Clovis point
technology, and Ice Age Europeans were amongst America's earliest
explorers.Immediately, the theory was attacked. The close resemblance
of the spear points was not enough.DAVID MELTZER: You can always
find...if you're careful in your selection, you can always find one
or two things that look alike. I'm not looking for one or two things.
I'm looking for lots of things: the artwork, the antler spear
throwers, where are they? Did they get left behind? There's no reason
why they shouldn't be there, but we don't see it.NARRATOR: Can one
spear point bridge a 5,000 year gap?KENNETH TANKERSLEY: Although
Cactus Hill, its radiocarbon date and artifact have been used to
bridge the gap between the Solutrean and Clovis, in reality, it will
take a lot of sites, a lot of radiocarbon dates and a large
assemblage of artifacts to make that connection.NARRATOR: And
although the Solutreans may have been capable of making a cross-
Atlantic journey, there's little archeological evidence that they
did.LAWRENCE GUY STRAUS: There is absolutely no evidence of deep sea
fishing. There's absolutely no evidence, for that matter, of boats.
NARRATOR: But Stanford argues that crucial evidence is missing,
submerged under 300 feet of water as rising sea levels inundated the
Solutrean coastline at the end of the Ice Age.The debate raged on,
with arguments for and against the Solutrean theory. Then came
evidence that, again, seemed like it might end the battle: DNA.It was
the latest report from colleagues of Doug Wallace who were
investigating early human migrations. They were puzzling over
mitochondrial DNA samples from a Native American tribe called the
Ojibwa.DOUGLAS WALLACE: When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the
Ojibwa we found, as we had anticipated, the four primary lineagesA,
B, C and Dbut there was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs
that was not A, B, C and D.NARRATOR: There was a fifth source of DNA
of mysterious origin. They called it X, and unlike A, B, C and D,
they couldn't find it anywhere in Siberia or eastern Asia. But it was
similar to an uncommon lineage in European populations today. At
first, they thought it must be the result of interracial breeding
within the last 500 years, sometime after Columbus.DOUGLAS WALLACE:
We naturally assumed that perhaps there had been European recent
mixture with the Ojibwa tribe and that some European women had
married into the Ojibwa tribe and contributed their mitochondrial
DNAs.NARRATOR: But that assumption proved wrong. When they looked at
the amount of variation in the X lineage, it pointed to an origin
long before Columbus, in fact, to at least 15,000 years ago. It
appeared to be evidence of Ice Age Europeans in America.DOUGLAS
WALLACE: Well, what it says is that a mitochondrial lineage that is
predominantly found in Europe somehow got to the Great Lakes region
of the Americas 14,000 to 15,000 years ago.NARRATOR: Could X be
genetic evidence of the Solutreans in America? Further investigation
raised another possibility. The ancient X lineage may have existed in
Siberia, but died out, though not before coming over to America with
Ancient migrations. DOUGLAS WALLACE: And so the DNA data itself
cannot distinguish between those two alternatives. It could be either
from Europe or from Siberia, of a population that is now
lost.NARRATOR: So X could have reached the Americas through Asia, or
across the Atlantic directly from Europe. The DNA could not provide a
storybook ending.


The creation of the Metis Nation is built on the foundation of the
Ojibwa Culture. This mix of people quietly and without fanfare
explored and mapped the interior of a continent. Louis Garneau (1790-
1863) homesteaded the Saint Mary's Falls Region of Michigan and was
an early homesteader in La Pointe, Wisconsin

Michel Cadotte 1764-1837 (also spelled Michael, Cadott, Cadeau, and
other variations) or (Ojibwe: Kechemeshane (or Gichi-miishen in the
contemporary spelling) "Great Michel") was a Métis fur trader whose
post at La Pointe on Madeline Island was a critical center for trade
between the Lake Superior Ojibwe and British and American trading

Media Corner We caught the last half(-ish) of a Nova program (PBS)
on the peopling of the Americas (originally broadcast back in
November). What we saw was pretty good, and after looking at a
transcript we found our initial impressions were correct (at least as
far as we're concerned). They hit all the right themes and didn't
really push one idea or the other overly hard. In a sense, it wasn't
about the peopling of the Americas at all, but rather about the
Clovis-first hypothesis. Consequently, we didn't hear a whole lot on
the various hypotheses regarding migration routes from Asia,
considerations of the ice-free corridor timing, possible maritime
routes, etc. The main "hook" seemed to be the possible European
connection pushed by Dennis Stanford, that is, that Clovis is derived
from the Solutrean. The major new evidence presented here was some
mtDNA work by Douglas Wallace who apparently found a fifth source of
DNA in the Ojibwa:

When we studied the mitochondrial DNA of the Ojibwa we found, as we
had anticipated, the four primary lineages—A, B, C and D—but there
was about a quarter of the mitochondrial DNAs that was not A, B, C
and D.

One team even proposes that the first Americans came from Europe, not
Asia, based on the similarity of Clovis points to the weapons of the
Solutreans, who lived about 17,000 years ago in what is now southern
France and northern Spain. If the Solutreans ever crossed the
Atlantic, they may have traveled like today's Eskimos, who make long
journeys skirting ice floes in watertight skin boats, hunting arctic
game as they go.

Settlers May Have Crossed Atlantic

= SANTA FE, N.M. (AP) _ In a radical new view of pre-history, two
prominent archeologists say North America's first inhabitants may
have crossed the icy Atlantic Ocean some 18,000 years ago from
Europe's Iberian Peninsula. The theory, presented at a weekend
conference, is at odds with the long-held notion that the continent's
first settlers came across a land bridge from Asia. The conventional
view is the stuff of college entrance exams and Far Side cartoons _
wandering cavemen wrapped in animal hides and lugging enormous
spears, crossing the land bridge from Asia to hunt woolly mammoths.
Archeologists say some nomads almost certainly made their way into
Alaska and found an ice-free highway down into the continent some
13,500 years ago. Their culture has been named Clovis for their
distinctive weapons that have been found in digs nationwide. But
according to the new theory, the continent's first inhabitants may
have crossed the Atlantic more than 18,000 years ago from Europe's
Iberian Peninsula _ the area that is now Spain, Portugal and
southwestern France. Belonging to a group known as the Solutreans,
these pre-modern explorers are believed to have originally settled
the Eastern Seaboard, according to the researchers. Over the next six
millennia, their hunting and gathering culture may have spread as far
as the American deserts and Canadian tundra, and perhaps into South
America. The researchers, Dennis Stanford and Bruce Bradley, concede
the Solutreans may not have been the only paleo-explorers to reach
the Western Hemisphere. But judging by their distinctive style of
projectile points and other clues in the archeological record, they
may have been the first settlers who brought to North America what,
until now, has been considered the Clovis culture. ``There is very
little in Clovis - in fact, nothing - that is not found in
Solutrea,'' said Stanford, who is anthropology curator at the
Smithsonian Institution. ``Their blades are virtually
indistinguishable.'' Stanford and Bradley, an independent researcher
from Cortez, Colo., offered their stunning reinterpretation of the
standard settlement theory at an archeology conference in Santa Fe.
The meeting was devoted to re-examining Clovis research seven decades
after it was accepted as historical bedrock. Other scientists say the
Solutrean alternative is such a radical departure that it might take
years to adequately evaluate. Stanford and Bradley's new explanation,
they noted, is based primarily on comparisons of projectile points
and other artifacts already discovered on both sides of the Atlantic.
No unequivocal Solutrean settlement remains have been found in North
America, they said. Researchers who believe Clovis and the Bering Sea
land-bridge theory is outdated point to sites at Monte Verde, Chile
as well as Pennsylvania, Virginia and South Carolina as being settled
in 12,500 B.C. to 16,000 B.C. But Clovis defenders say many artifacts
from those digs are so crude that they may be rocks that have broken
naturally rather than actual stone tools fashioned by prehistoric
hands. Still, observers said, the older Solutrean projectile points
from Europe and the more recent Clovis points from the Americas
closely resemble each other. That's what makes the new ``Out of
Iberia'' theory so tantalizing. ``There is no question about it,''
Kent State University archeologist Kenneth Tankersley said. ``There
are only two places in the world and two times that this technology
appears - Solutrean and Clovis.'' How seafaring Solutreans could have
arrived in North America is unknown. Based on his knowledge of modern
native cultures above the Arctic Circle, Stanford said it is not
farfetched to imagine Solutreans sailing to the New World in skin
boats. With a strong current and favorable weather, the trip might
have taken as little as three weeks, he calculated. By this time in
pre-history, he said, South Pacific islanders had been sailing open
waters for at least 20,000 years.

"To Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. is given the credit for completely
opening to the fur traders the region about the upper Mississippi. "
Jean Baptiste had followed in the footsteps of his father, the fur
trader and partner of Alexander Henry WHO IS HE? Jean Baptiste
Cadotte, Jr. spent the winter of 1797-98 at the strategic forks of
the Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, or at the present site of the
town of Red Lake Falls. "Mr. Cadotte in the employ of the Northwest
Company, probably spent the winter of 1794-95 at Red Lake and the
next year at Cedar or Cass Lake, while the season following, 1796-97,
was passed at Red Lake once more. He was in charge the next winter of
the trading house of the Northwest Company on the present site of the
town of Red Lake Falls." On March 25, 1798 the geographer and
surveyor David Thompson, who like Cadotte was in the employ of the
Northwest Company, visited Cadotte's house at the fork of the Red
Lake and Clearwater Rivers. About his visit Thompson wrote: "Mr.
Baptiste Cadotte was about thirty-five years of age. He was the son
of a French gentleman by a native woman, and married to a very
handsome native woman, also the daughter of a Frenchman: He had been
well educated in Lower Canada, and spoke fluently his native
Language, with Latin, French and English. I had long wished to meet a
well educated native, from whom I could derive sound information for
I was well aware that neither myself, nor any other Person I had met
with, who was not a Native, were sufficiently masters of the Indian
Languages. As the season was advancing to break up the Rivers, and
thaw the snow from off the ground, I inquired if he would advise me
to proceed any farther with Dogs and Sleds: he said the season was
too far advanced, and my further advance must be in Canoes.

Because of the severity of the spring thaw and rain which accompanied
it, Thompson returned to Cadotte's house March 31 at which time he
spoke with the Chippewa chief of the Red Lake Indians and observed
some Indian dances. "The course of this River is from south westward
until it is lost in the Plains, the groves are at a considerable
distance from each other, by no means sufficient for the regular
Farmer, but may become a fine pastoral country , but without a
market, other than the inhabitants of the Red River." Thompson left
Cadotte's house on April 9 with his crew of three French Canadians
and the wife of one of them, a native woman. They took the Clearwater
River since they were traveling in a birch canoe and the Red Lake
River still had ice on it from the Lake.

Cadotte was born July 22, 1764 to a French father and an Anishinaabe
mother in Sault Ste. Marie. His paternal grandfather, a man named
Cadeau, had come to Lake Superior on a French exploratory mission in
the late 17th century. His father, Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr., became
an active fur trader for French and later British interests in and
around the eastern end of Lake Superior. His mother, a Roman Catholic
convert whose French name was likely Marianne or Anastasia, was a
member of the powerful Owaazsii (Bullhead) clan of the Anishinaabeg.
She is frequently known in the records as having high status in the
region and as being an exceptionally kind person. Michel Cadotte
received a liberal French Catholic education in Montreal.

Though partially French by heritage, Cadotte was born just after the
collapse of New France. His career, which came toward the end of the
great fur trade, was during a period were traders of Métis heritage
were handling the bulk of the trade on behalf of British and American
companies. As his father's career progressed, he pressed westward
along the south shore of Lake Superior and set up a trading post on
Mooningwanekaaning, an island in Chequamegon Bay in modern day
Wisconsin. The island, the traditional center of the Lake Superior
Ojibwe had been home to a previous French post. As Michel reached
adulthood, he came west with his father and older brother Jean
Baptiste Jr. (more often called John Baptiste Cadotte).

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