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From: Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs <at> swbell.net>
Subject: Wireless update (long)
Newsgroups: gmane.linux.lfs.beyond.devel
Date: Saturday 1st April 2006 05:55:26 UTC (over 12 years ago)
I've had some success with the wireless.  I can now communicate via a
wireless card on a LFS system.   I've got a built in card and an
external PCMCIA card, but I've only checked out the PCMCIA card for now.
 I don't anticipate any problems though.

For the record, this is what I found out:

You have to have the right drivers installed!  In my case, I needed
madwifi drivers.  The kernel drivers needed fell into two categories:
bus and network card.

For the bus->PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) support, I needed "CardBus
yenta-compatible bridge support and "16-bit PCMCIA support", but I also
think (not sure) I needed "Support for PCI Hotplug".  More on this later.

In the Networking section I needed:
  Generic IEEE 802.11 Networking Stack

I also enabled:
  IEEE 802.11 WEP encryption (802.1x)
  IEEE 802.11i CCMP support
  IEEE 802.11i TKIP encryption

In device drivers->Network devices->Wireless LAN (non-hamradio)
  Hermes chipset 802.11b support (Orinoco/Prism2/Symbol)
  Hermes in PLX9052 based PCI adaptor support (Netgear MA301 etc.)
  Hermes in TMD7160 based PCI adaptor support
  Nortel emobility PCI adaptor support
  Prism 2.5 PCI 802.11b adaptor support
  Hermes PCMCIA card support

I'm not 100% all these are required.  I suppose I could redo the kernel
build to make these modules and see which ones are needed.

In any case, on my system, when the cards are recognized by the drivers,
they show up in /proc/net/wireless and in a cryptic manner in /sys.

After that, using wireless-tools and ifconfig (I do prefer net-tools), I
can get the net cards up.

The madwifi device shows up as ath0 but there is also a wifi0 with the
same MAC address found by ifconfig.  The laptop has a 2nd "PCMCIA" bus
that is contolled by the Orinoco module.  The funny thing about this is
it can't be inserted or removed.  The device shows up as eth1.

$ cat /proc/net/wireless
Inter-| sta-|   Quality        |Discarded packets         |Missed|WE
 face | tus | link level noise |nwid crypt frag retry misc|beacon|19
  eth1: 0000    0.  134.  134.     0     0    0     0    0      0
  ath0: 0004   51.  212.  161.  3493     0    0     0    0      0

To get the card up, I did:

$ ifconfig ath0 up
$ iwlist ath0 scan

ath0 Scan completed :
    Cell 01 - Address: 00:14:6C:09:C9:E7
              Frequency:2.462 GHz (Channel 11)
              Quality=52/94  Signal level=-43 dBm  Noise level=-95 dBm
              Encryption key:off
              Bit Rate:1 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:2 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:5.5 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:11 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:18 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:24 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:36 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:54 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:6 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:9 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:12 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:48 Mb/s
    Cell 02 - Address: 00:09:5B:53:94:BE
              Frequency:2.462 GHz (Channel 11)
              Quality=1/94  Signal level=-94 dBm  Noise level=-95 dBm
              Encryption key:on
              Bit Rate:1 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:2 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:5.5 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:11 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:6 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:9 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:12 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:18 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:24 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:36 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:48 Mb/s
              Bit Rate:54 Mb/s

Oops, someone else around here has wireless.  Kinda weak signal.  At
least they have encryption on....

Then I have to use iwconfig to set up the card:

$ iwconfig ath0 essid "NETGEAR" channel 11 ap 00:14:6C:09:C9:E7

And finally set up the ip address:

$ ifconfig ath0

Overall, I think this is fairly complicated.  I'm going to have to think
about what to say in the book.  Right now, there seems to be two
packages needed: wireless-tools and madwifi drivers, but there needs to
be a section on configuration too.

Things I haven't explored yet: encryption/keys, scripting, hotplug/udev.
This is certainly a non-trivial topic.

  -- Bruce

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